Table 24.1.

Geological characteristics, deposit types, host lithologies, alteration and ore mineral assemblages of important metal deposits in Myanmar

No.DepositLocation (N, E)Deposit typeTerrane/fold beltHost rocks/(ages)Intrusions/(ages)Alteration minerals and typesOre mineralogyTonnage/gradeReferences
1Bawdwin (Pb–Zn–Ag–Cu–Ni–Co)
(mine)
23° 07′ 10″,
97° 18′ 30″
VHMS/ sediment-hostedSibumasu TerraneTuffaceous rock (Bawdwin Tuff),
volcaniclastic and turbiditic unit (Pangyun Formation)
(Cambro-Ordovician)
Rhyolite porphyry; Nam la (red) and Loei Mi (Grey) unitsSericitization, chloritization, carbonate alterationGalena, sphalerite, pyrite, cerussite, smithsonite, barite, gersdoffite, chalcopyrite, pyrargyrite, cubanite, cobaltite, argentite, sulphosalts10.8 Mt @ 22.8% Pb, 13.9% Zn, 1.1% Cu, 670 g t−1 Ag with Co and Ni creditsKhin Zaw (2003, 2004), Khin Zaw et al. (1999a, 2014a, b), Than Htun et al. (2017a), Gardiner et al. (2017)
2Theingon (Bawsaing) (Pb–Zn–Ag)
(mine)
20° 57′, 96°48′MVT/Irish typeSibumasu TerraneWunbye Formation: bedded limestone, dolomitic limestone, marl, shale of Middle Ordovician ageNo known intrusionSilicification, dolomitizationGalena, sphalerite, pyrite, cerrusite, tetrahedrite-tennentite, covellite, chalcopyrite, digenite, argentite, cerrusite1.5 Mt;
sulphide ore @ 15% Pb, 5% Zn, 5 oz/ton Ag; oxide ore @ 10% Pb, 36.7% Zn, 3 oz/ton
Goossens (1978); Khin Zaw et al. (1984, 1999a); Than Htun et al. (2017a, b)
3Longh Keng (Zn carbonate)
(mine)
20° 35′, 97° 29′Secondary Zn carbonate depositSibumasu TerranePlateau Limestone of Devonian–Permian ageNo known intrusionCarbonate alterationSmithsonite, willemite, monheimite, hydrozincite203 270 tonnes: smithsonite ore @ 41.54% Zn, hydrozincite ore @ 55.25% ZnThan Htun et al. (2017a)
4Yadatheingi (Pb–Zn–Ag)
(mine)
22° 35′, 96° 30′SHMSSibumasu TerraneSandstone, shale of Chaung Magyi Group (Late Precambrian)No known intrusionChloritization, sericitization, kaolinization, silicificationSilver-rich galena, sphalerite, pyrite, arsenopyrite, anglesite, cerrusite72 000 tonnes @ 3.3% Pb, 1.2% Zn, 360 ppm AgThan Htun et al. (2017a)
5Monywa (Cu)
(mine)
22° 04′, 95° 06′High-sulphidation epithermalKawlin–Wuntho–Popa BeltRhyolite, dacite, andesite
(Late Miocene)
Dacite porphyries
(U–Pb, Ar–Ar, K–Ar 13–19 Ma), post-mineral hornblende-feldspar phyric dyke (K–Ar 5.8 Ma)
Strong silicification, advanced argillic alteration (pyrophyllite, alunite, dickite, kaolinite, sericite, quartz)Chalcocite, digenite, enargite, chalcopyrite, covellite, anhydrite, barite, jarosite, sphalerite, galena, chalcanthiteLetpaduang: 1478 Mt @ 0.37% Cu, Sabetaung and Sabetaung South 213 Mt @ 0.26% Cu, Kyisintaung 391
Mt @ 0.31% Cu
Mitchell et al. (2010), Khin Zaw et al. (2017a, b)
6Shangalon (Cu–Mo–Au)
(prospect)
23° 43′ 06″, 95° 30′ 55″Porphyry Cu–Mo–AuKawlin–Wuntho–Popa BeltDiorite and quartz dioriteGranodiorite porphyry SHRIMP U–Pb 38.5 ± 0.6 Ma, ICP-MS U–Pb 39.9 ± 0.31 Ma; nearby Kanza Chaung granitoid batholith U–Pb age of 94.6 ± 1 MaStrong silicification, advanced argillic alterationChalcopyrite, minor chalcocite, molybdenite, covellite, bornite9 Mt @ 0.23% Cu, 0.17% Au with traces of MoGardiner et al. (2016), Khin Zaw et al. (2017a, b)
7Mahar San (Cu–Pb–Zn–Ag)
(prospect)
23° 48′ 5″, 95° 33′ 33″VHMSKawlin–Wuntho–Popa BeltHosted in a sequence of intermediate volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks of probable Miocene ageNo dataChlorite-sericite alteration with carbonate and quartz veiningPyrite, chalcopyrite, chalcocite with galena, sphalerite, covellite, bornite and tennantite7.35% Cu, 5.58% Pb, 7.56% Zn, 3.8 g t−1 Au and 68.6 g t−1 AgKhin Zaw et al. (2017a, b)
8Leymyetna (Cu–Au)
(prospect)
17° 30′, 95° 07′Cyprus-type VHMSWOB (Western Ophiolite Belt)Mineralization occurs in submarine mafic–ultramafic volcanic rocks associated with predominantly shale, limestone, chert and sandstoneNo dataChloritization, sericite alterationPyrite, marcasite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, magnetite, pyrrhotiteUp to 100 000@ 1.06–2.53% CuHla Htay et al. (2017), Khin Zaw et al. (2017a, b)
9Pyaukseipin (Kyaukse Sebe Taung) (Cu)
(prospect)
21° 30–35′, 96°15–20′MVT/SEDEX?Sibumasu TerranePalaeozoic rocks of mainly Ordovician Limestone (Wunbye Formation) underlain probably structurally by the Chaung Magyi Group (Late Proterozoic)No known intrusionChloritization, sericitization, kaolinization, silicificationChalcopyrite, tetrahedrite, bornite, chalcocite, barite, pyrite, malachite, azurite and often associated with minor gold0.09 Mt @ 0.85–1.5% Cu at Main zone; 0.34 Mt @0.69% Cu @ Sabe ExtensionKhin Zaw et al. (2017b)
10Kyaukpahto (Au–Ag)
(mine)
23° 48′, 95° 57′Sedimentary rock-hostedKawlin–Wuntho–Popa BeltSandstone, siltstone
(Eocene)
(U–Pb youngest detrital zircon age 48.7 ± 0.7 Ma)
No known intrusionSilicification, sericitization, argillic alteration, decalcificationPyrite, galena, sphalerite, electrum, chalcopyrite, arsenopyrite6.03 Mt
@ 3.05 g t−1 Au
Ye Myint Swe et al. (2017)
11Kyaukpazat (Au–Cu)
(mine)
24° 05′ 02″,
95° 50′ 45″
Intrusion-related and skarn-type Cu–AuKawlin–Wuntho–Popa BeltAndesite (Mawgyi andesite)Granodiorite and dioritic plutons of Mid-Cretaceous–Eocene ageSilicification, sericitization, chloritizationPyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite,
galena, altaite, calaverite,
petzite, native Au, tellurobismuthite
0.03 Mt
@ 21.7 g t−1 Au
Ye Myint Swe et al. (2017)
12Phayaung Taung (Au)
(mine)
22° 08′, 96° 16′ 15″Orogenic AuMogok–Mandalay–Mergui Metamorphic BeltSlate, phyllite and quartzite of the Chaung Magyi Group (Late Proterozoic)Diorite and granodiorite intrusion of Mesozoic ageSilicification, hematitization, carbonate alterationHematite, visible electrum, pyrite, chalcopyrite, bornite, azurite-malachite, bismuth sulphosalts and rare Fe-As-oxide scorodite3.23 Mt
@ 4.78 g t−1 Au
Ye Myint Swe et al. (2017)
13Thabeikkyin- (Kwinthonze) (Au–Cu)
(mine)
22° 46′, 96° 06′ 11″Orogenic Au and skarn-type Cu–AuMogok–Mandalay–Mergui Metamorphic BeltMarble, calc-silicate, gneiss of Mogok GroupSyenite, diorite and granitic rocks
(Mesozoic)
Silicification, sericitization, argillic alterationPyrite, galena, sphalerite, electrum, chalcopyrite, arsenopyrite, covellite, chalcocite, tetrahedrite, bornite, pyrrhotite0.76 Mt
@ 1.86 g t−1 Au
Tin Aung Myint et al. (2014), Ye Myint Swe et al. (2017)
14Shweminbon (Au–Cu)
(prospect)
20° 40′ N; 96° 28′ ESkarn-type Au–CuMogok–Mandalay–Mergui Metamorphic BeltShale, sandstone, limestone of Shweminbon Formation (Jurassic)Stocks of diorite intrusion
(U–Pb age of 119 ± 1.1 Ma)
Prograde garnet-pyroxene-wollastonite followed by retrograde assemblages of epidote-calciteChalcopyrite, pyrite, sphalerite, galena, hematite, electrum0.22 Mt @ 0.33–3.7
g t−1 Au
Khin Zaw et al. (2017b), Ye Myint Swe et al. (2017)
15Modi Taung (Au–Ag)
(mine)
20° 20′ 53.204″, 96°24′ 21.092″Orogenic AuMogok–Mandalay–Mergui Metamorphic BeltMudstone, siltstone, sandstone of Mergui Group (Carboniferous–Permian)Post-mineralized granite intrusion
(LA-ICP-MS zircon age of 49 ± 1 Ma)
Silicification, sericitization, chloritizationPyrite, galena, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, arsenopyrite, visible goldGeological resource of 2 Moz @ ave 8 g t−1 Au and sporadic 3000 g t−1 AuYe Myint Swe et al. (2017)
16Shwegyin (Au)17° 57′, 96° 56′Orogenic Au/alluvialMogok–Mandalay–Mergui Metamorphic BeltMetaclastic rocks of Mergui GroupBiotite graniteSilicification, sericitizationPyrite, native goldn/aYe Myint Swe et al. (2017)
16Meyon (Au–Ag)
(prospect)
17° 26′, 97° 00′Orogenic AuMogok–Mandalay–Mergui Metamorphic BeltSlate, phyllite, argillite, schist, minor greywake of Mergui Group
(Carboniferous–Permian)
Granite and diorite
(Mesozoic)
Silicification, argillic to propylitic alterationPyrite, electrum, chalcopyrite, arsenopyrite, rare pyrrhotite0.07 Mt
@ 0.1– 30.6 g t−1 Au
Ye Myint Swe et al. (2017)
17Mawchi (Sn–W)
(mine)
18° 45′, 97° 10′Vein-typeMogok–Mandalay–Mergui Metamorphic BeltMetasediments of Mawchi Formation equivalent to Mergui GroupQuartz veins and stockworks in both tourmalinized biotite granite
(LA-MC-ICP-MS zircon 42–45 Ma)
Alteration assemblages of tourmaline, fluorite, white micas, chlorite, calcite and berylCassiterite, wolframite, scheelite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, arsenopyrite,
molybdenite, bismuthinite, sphalerite, galena
31 Mt ore
@ ave 0.3% mixed Sn + WO3
Aung Zaw Myint et al. (2017), Than Htun et al. (2017b)
18Hermyingyi (Sn–W) (mine)14° 15′, 98° 35′Vein-typeSouthern Mogok–Mandalay–Mergui Metamorphic BeltMetasedimentary rocks of Mergui Group

Megacrystic biotite granite
(U–Pb SHRIMP zircon age of 61.7 ± 1.3 Ma; LA-ICP-MS zircon ages of 70.5 ± 0.8 Ma and 68.9 ± 1.8 Ma)
Greisenization, sericitizationWolframite, cassiterite, molybdenite, pyrite, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, galena, bismuth, bismuthinite0.7 Mt ore @ ave 0.4% mixed Sn + WO3Than Htun et al. (2017b)
19Yadanabon (Sn–W) (mine)11° 17′ 05″, 99° 17′Vein-type, alluvialSouthern Mogok–Mandalay–Mergui Metamorphic BeltMetasedimentary rocks of Mergui GroupCoarse-grained biotite granite
(U–Pb zircon age of 50.3 ± 0.6 Ma)
Greisenization, sericitizationWolframite, cassiterite, molybdenite, bismuth, pyrite, bismuthinite, chalcopyrite43 tonnes of concentrates @ ave 0.79% mixed Sn + WO3Gardiner et al. (2016), Than Htun et al. (2017b)
20Kanbauk (Sn–W)
(mine)
14° 35′, 98° 03′Vein and skarn type, alluvialSouthern Mogok–Mandalay–Mergui Metamorphic BeltMetasedimentary rocks of slate, quartzite and limestone of Mergui GroupBiotite graniteGreisenization, sericitization, prograde garnet–pyroxene–wollastonite and retrograde epidote, chlorite, fluorite, quartz and carbonateWolframite, cassiterite, scheelite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, galena, sphalerite, magnetite, pyrrhotite, molybdenite, native bismuth6.7 Mt ore @ 0.37% Sn, 0.18 WO3Bender (1983); Than Htun et al. (2017b)
21Heinda (Sn)
(Mine)
14° 07′, 98° 26.5′Alluvial/ uplifted fossilized placer depositSouthern Mogok–Mandalay–Mergui Metamorphic BeltPebble and boulder beds of slates, quartzite and micaceous quartzite of Mergui Group with large granite boulders and gravels; unconsolidated Quaternary clasticsBiotite graniteLateritization, sericitizationWolframite, ilmenite, molybdenite, magnetite, hematite, pyrite, zircon, topaz, monazite, rutile, columbite-tantalite, tourmaline, small quantities of garnet, gold flakes12 464 tonnes concentrates @ 0.68% SnThan Htun et al. (2017b)
22Tagaung Taung (Ni–Cr)
(Mine)
23° 34′ 25″, 96° 10′ 56″Residual, lateritic typeMogok
Metamorphic Belt
Serpentinized ultramafic bodies of dunite, harzburgite, partly cumulate peridotite and dolerite dykesPeridotite, dunite, gabbro
(Mesozoic)
Serpentinization, supergene enrichment, lateritizationFerruginous laterite, limonite, red-brown clay, garnierite, chromite40 Mt @ 2% NiHla Htay et al. (2017)
23Mwetaung (Ni–Cr)
(Mine)
23° 25′, 94° 00′Residual, lateritic typeWOB (Western Ophiolite Belt)Greywacke, mudstone and shale of Pane Chaung Group; serpentinized harzburgite, lherzolite, dunite, noritic gabbro, basaltPeridotite, dunite, noritic gabbro
(Mesozoic)
Serpentinization, supergene enrichment, lateritizationApple-green-coloured garnierite, chromite, magnetite36 Mt @ 1.48% NiLynn Myint (2016), Hla Htay et al. (2017)
24Thabyu (Sb)
(Mine)
15° 31′, 98° 25′ 30″StrataboundSibumasu TerraneQuartzose sandstone, calcareous slates, phyllite, sandy schists and thin limestones of Mergui Group (Carboniferous)No known intrusionSilicificationStibnite locally oxidized to cervantite and stibconite0.013 Mt @ ave 37% SbToe Aung Kyaw (2017)
25Lebyin (Sb–Au)
(Mine)
20° 41′, 96° 26′StrataboundMogok–Mandalay–Mergui Metamorphic BeltNgayan Chaung Turbidites and sandstone and siliceous sandstone of Sweminbon Formation (Upper Triassic and Lower Jurassic)No known intrusionSilicification, hydrothermal brecciationStibnite, cervantite, stibconite0.112 Mt @ 1.64–34.5% SbToe Aung Kyaw (2017)
26Wan Saw–Wan Phai (Mn)
(Mine)
21° 21′, 100° 30′StrataboundSibumasu TerraneOrdovician SiltstoneNo known intrusionSilicificationPyrolusite, hausmannite5–7.5 Mt @ 20–75% MnKhin Zaw et al. (1999a)
27Kyadwinye (Fe)
(Mine)
21° 53′, 96° 32′ 20″Residual FeSibumasu TerraneLimestone and dolomitic limestone of Devonian ageNo known intrusionLimonitization, hematizationLimonite, hematite3 Mt @ 54% FeBender (1983)
28Pangpet (Fe–U–Cu) (Mine)20° 44′ 30″, 97° 06′ 30″Residual and possibly IOCG?Sibumasu TerranePlateau Limestone (Devonian–Triassic) underlain by rhyolitic bodyNo known intrusionLimonitization, hematizationLimonite, hematiteLimonite ore: 70 Mt @ 43% Fe; hematite ore: 10 @ 56% Fe with 1.5% Cu, 0.2% UO3Bender (1983)
29Kalaewa (Coal)
(Mine)
23° 11′, 94° 20′SedimentaryWOB (Western Ophiolite Belt)Yaw Formation (Upper Eocene)No known intrusionn/aBituminous coals14.5–32.4 MtBender (1983)
  • Locations of deposits are shown in Figure 24.2.