Table 2.2.

Basin classification system modified from Ingersoll & Busby (1995) and Ingersoll (2012), following Dickinson (1974, 1976)

Basin categoryModern examplesAncient examples
[1] Divergent settings
Continental riftsRio Grande rift; Rhine rift;East African and Ethiopian rifts; Gulf of Corinth, GreeceProterozoic Keeweenawan rift; Triassic Connecticut rift, NE USA; Neogene, Gulf of Suez
Nascent ocean basins (proto-oceanic troughs) and continental marginsRed Sea, Gulf of AdenJurassic, East Greenland
[2] Intraplate settings
Intraplate continental margins
(a) Continental rises and terraces (shelf-slope-rise configuration)Eastern Seaboard, USA and CanadaLower Palaeozoic, USA and Canadian Cordillera
(b) Transform fault configurationSouth coast, west AfricaPrecambrian–Lower Palaeozoic Alabama–Oklahoma transform
(c) Embankment configuration (shelf edge above ocean crust)Mississippi Gulf CoastEarly Palaeozoic Meguma terrane, Canadian Appalachians
Intracratonic basinsChad Basin, Eyre BasinPalaeozoic Michigan and Illinois basins; Permian–Mesozoic West Siberian Basin
Continental platformsBarents Sea; Eurasian ArcticLower Palaeozoic Sauk sequence, USA; Russian Platform
Active ocean basinsPacific Ocean basinSemail ophiolite (Oman)
Oceanic islands, aseismic ridges and plateausEmperor–Hawaii seamount chainMesozoic Snow Mountain Volcanic Complex (Franciscan), California
Dormant (no spreading or subduction) ocean basinsGulf of Mexico? Palaeozoic Tarim Basin, China
[3] Convergent settings
TrenchesChile Trench, Japan TrenchCretaceous, Shumagin Island, Alaska; Palaeozoic, Southern Uplands, Scotland
Trench-slope basinsCentral America TrenchCretaceous Cambria slab, California; Nias Island, Indonesia; Neogene of Hokkaido, Japan
Forearc basins (arc-trench gap)Sunda, Indonesia; Alaska Range; Cascades, NW USA–CanadaCretaceous Great Valley sequence, California; Devonian–Carboniferous Tamworth Trough, eastern Australia
Intra-arc basinsMedian Trough, Nicaraguan DepressionCretaceous Troodos Complex, Cyprus; Oligo–Miocene New Hebrides Islands
Back-arc basins(a) Marianas; Sea of Japan; Aleutians back-arc(a) Jurassic Gran Canon Formation, Cedros Island, Baja California
(a) oceanic
(b) continental(b) Sunda Shelf(b) Upper Triassic–Lower Jurassic USA Cordillera
Retroforeland basins
(a) Retro-arc foreland basinsSub-Andean basinsCretaceous Sevier foreland, USA; Miocene–Recent Bermejo Basin, Argentina
(b) Collisional retroforeland basinsWestern Tarim Basin, ChinaTriassic–Jurassic Ordos Basin, China
(c) Broken retroforeland basinsSierras Pampeanas, ArgentinaLaramide basins, USA (e.g. Paleocene Wind River Basin Wyoming, USA
Remnant ocean basins (shrinking between convergent margins)Bay of Bengal; Huon Gulf (Solomon Sea)Pennsylvanian–Permian, Ouachita Basin, USA; Triassic Songpan–Ganzi Zone, central China
Proforeland basinsMesopotamian Basin, Persian GulfNorth Alpine Foreland Basin (Swiss Molasse Basin); Indo-Gangetic (sub-Himalayan) Basin
Wedge-top (piggyback) basinsPeshawar Basin, PakistanNeogene Apennines basins, Italy; Cenozoic Tremp–Graus Basin, Spain
Hinterland basins (on thickened continental crust behind thrust belts)Altiplano, BoliviaNeogene Zhada Basin, Tibet
[4] Transform settings
Transtensional basins (fault-bend basins, stepover basins)Dead Sea Basin; Cariaco Basin, offshore VenezuelaCarboniferous Magdalen Basin Gulf of St Lawrence, Canada; Miocene Ridge Basin, California
Transpressional basinsSanta Barbara and Ventura basins, southern CaliforniaOligo–Miocene San Joaquin Basin, California
Transrotational basinsWestern Aleutian forearcMiocene Los Angeles Basin, California
[5] Hybrid and miscellaneous settings
Collisional broken foreland (distant collisions)Qaidam Basin, ChinaPennsylvanian–Permian Taos Trough, New Mexico, USA
Aulacogens (failed rifts at high angle to margin)Mississippi Embayment, USAPalaeozoic Anadarko aulacogen Oklahoma, USA; Cretaceous Benue Trough, Nigeria
ImpactogensBaikal rift, SiberiaRhine Graben, France-Germany
Successor basins (post-tectonic intermontane basins)Southern Basin and Range, SW USAPalaeogene Sustut Basin, British Columbia, Canada
Halokinetic basinsDeep Gulf of Mexico mini-basinsCretaceous–Palaeogene La Popa Basin, Mexico
Bolide basinsMeteor Crater, ArizonaCretaceous–Paleocene boundary Chicxulub Basin (central America)