Table 29.1.

Ordovician–Silurian land plant megafossil assemblages (after Edwards & Wellman (2001) and Edwards & Richardson (2004) with updates). Locality codes refer to those plotted on the palaeogeographical base maps. Pinnatiramosus qianensis is now considered to represent the roots of a younger, possibly Permian, plant that penetrated into Silurian strata (Edwards et al. 2007) and is omitted from this review

LocalityAgeDatingCompositionReferencea
(K1) OmanKatianPalynology (acritarchs, Chitinozoans) and field relationsIsolated sporangiaWellman et al. (2003)
(L1) Maine, USALlandovery (?Telychian)InvertebratesEohostimella heathanabSchopf et al. (1966)
(W1) Tipperary, IrelandWenlock (Homerian)GraptolitesCooksonia sp.Edwards et al. (1983)
(W2) Czech RepublicWenlockGraptolitesCooksonia sp.Libertin et al. (2002)
(W3/Lu7) Southern BoliviaLate Wenlock/LudlowGraptolitesSterile rhyniophytesToro et al. (1997)
(Lu1) Anglo-Welsh Basin (Cwm Craig Ddu, Powys)Ludlow (Gorstian)Graptolitescf. Cooksonia cambrensisEdwards et al. (1979)
Cooksonia pertoni
Cooksonia sp.
(Lu2) Anglo-Welsh Basin (Capel Horeb, Powys)Ludlow (Ludfordian)Invertebrates;Cooksonia sp.Edwards & Rogerson (1979)
AcritarchsSteganotheca striata
(Lu3) Northern GreenlandLudlow (?Ludfordian)GraptolitesSalopella sp.Larsen et al. (1987)
(Lu4) Bathurst Island, Arctic CanadaLudlowGraptolitesHostinellaKotyk et al. (2002)
Conodontscf. Bathurstia sp.
BrachiopodsZosterophyllum sp.
aff. Z. sp. A
a.ff. Zost. sp. B
Distichophytum sp.
Macivera gracilis
Rhyniophytoid
(Lu5) Victoria, Australia?late LudlowGraptolitesBaragwanathia longfoliaTims & Chambers (1984); Douglas & Holmes (2006)
Salopella australis
Hedeia sp.
Zosterophylls
(Lu6/P1) Tarija, southern BoliviaLudlow–?early PridoliField relationsCooksonia cf. caledonicacaEdwards et al. (2001)
Sporescf. Tarrantia
cf. Cooksonia hemisphaerica
(P1-5) Anglo-Welsh Basin (Ludford Corner, Ludlow)PridoliInvertebratesCooksonia pertoniRogerson et al. (2002)
SporesHollandophyton colliculum
Various isolated sporangia
(P1-5) Anglo-Welsh Basin (Perton Lane, Hereford)PridoliInvertebratesCaia langiiFanning et al. (1990, 1991a, b)
SporesCooksonia cambrensis
Cooksonia pertoni
Pertonella dactylethra
Salopella sp.
(P1-5) Anglo-Welsh Basin (Freshwater East, Pembrokeshire)PridoliSporesCooksonia cambrensisEdwards (1979)
Cooksonia hemisphaerica
Cooksonia pertoni.
Cooksonia sp
Psilophytites sp.
Tortilicaulis transwalliensis
(P1-5) Anglo-Welsh Basin (Capel Horeb, Powys)PridoliSporesCooksonia sp.Edwards & Rogerson (1979)
Steganotheca striata
(P1-5) Anglo-Welsh Basin (Little Wallop Hall, Shropshire)PridoliInvertebratesCooksonia pertoniRogerson et al. (1993)
Spores
(P6) Ontario (Canada) and New York State (USA)PridoliConodontsCooksonia cf. hemisphaericaEdwards et al. (2004)
EurypteridsCooksonia sp.
(P7) PolandPridoliInvertebratesCooksonia sp.Bodzioch et al. (2003)
(P8) Podolia, UkrainePridoliCooksonia pertoniIshchenko (1975)
C. hemisphaerica
Eorhynia (Salopella)
?Zosterophyllum sp.
Lycopodolica
(P9) Czech RepublicPridoliGraptolitesCooksonia bohemicaObrhel (1962), Schweitzer (1983), Libertin et al. (2002)
(P10) LibyaPridoliGraptolites?Cooksonia sp.Daber (1971)
(P11) KazakhstanPridoliGraptolitesCooksonia sp.Petrosyan (in Edwards & Wellman 2001)
Zosterophyllum sp.
(P12) Balkhash area, KazakhstanPridoliGraptolitesCooksonella sp.Senkevich (1975, 1986)
?Baragwanathia sp.
?Taeniocrada sp.
Jugumella burubaensis
(P13) Yunnan, ChinaPridoliChitinozoansZosterophyllum qujingenseHao et al. (2007)
(P14) Junggar Basin, Xinjiang, ChinaPridoliGraptolitesCooksonella sp.Cai et al. (1993)
Junggaria spinosa
?Lycopodolica
Salopella xinjiangensis
Zosterophyllum sp.
  • a For brevity only the most recent review of the flora is referenced.

  • b Strother & Lenk (1983) suggested that Eohostimella represents an animal burrow rather than a plant although this was refuted by Gray (1984).