Table 1.4.

Significant explosions

DateAltitude of plume (km)Explosion volume (106 m3)Associated depositsCommentsReference
17 September 1996143Ballistics, lithics pumiceFollowed dome collapseRobertson et al. (1998)
3–12 August 19973–140.3Column collapse pumice flows11 sub-daily cycle VulcaniansDruitt et al. (2002b)
22 September–21 October 19975–150.3 typicalColumn collapse pumice flows77 sub-daily cycle VulcaniansDruitt et al. (2002b)
26 December 199715?Accretionary lapilli mainly south to seaThree Vulcanians followed lateral blast, co-PDC plumeSparks et al. (2002)
Ritchie et al. (2002)
12 July 200315?LithicsDome collapseHerd et al. (2005)
13–15 July 200314, 12, 11, 14Total 5–10Vesicular ash/pumiceFour Vulcanians followed dome collapseEdmonds et al. (2006)
3 March 20047∼0.1Pumice-rich flow (reworked?)Isolated event in pauseGreen & Neuberg (2005)
Linde et al. (2010)
20 May 200617–20?Lithics, <5% pumiceDome collapseLoughlin et al. (2010)
8 January 200710?Pumice-rich block-and-ash flowAlso NW dome collapse (c. 5×106 m3)De Angelis et al. (2007)
29 July 2008121.4 DREPumice flowsFrom Gage's Wall ventKomorowski et al. (2010)
3 December 2008151.2 DREBlock-and-ash flow, ballistics to 2 kmDome rock derived?Komorowski et al. (2010)
3 January 2009111.2 DREContinuous pumice sheet, pumice flowFour explosionsKomorowski et al. (2010)
8 January 201082.7 DREBlock-and-ash flow, little pumiceLargest volume Vulcanian, dome derived, fountain collapseCole et al. (2014b)
10 January 201070.8 DREFountain collapseCole et al. (2014b)
11 January 201060.4 DREFountain collapse
5 February 201071.0 DREBAF, little pumiceFountain collapseCole et al. (2014b)
8 February 201050.3 DREFountain collapseCole et al. (2014b)
11 February 2010151.0 DREPumice depositDome collapse. Small lateral blast. Bi-lobate pumice distributionCole et al. (2014b)